Khovsgol Nuur (National Park)
The lake was originated about 7 million years ago. It is located throughout Alag-Erdene, Renchinlkhumbe, Khankh, Chandmani-Undur sums of Khovsgol aimag and 101 kms from north of Murun. It is 2760 square kilometers, 34-36 kilometers wide, 136 kilometers long and 262 meters deep. It is located at 1645 meters above the sea level. The length of the coastline is 414 kilometers which stands 2nd in Asia. Drainage basin of the lake is 5,300 sq km that holds 46 rivers and streams. It accounts for 1% of the world’s freshwater. About 70% of the bottom of the lake is 100 meters deep. There are 9 species of fishes such as Siberian grayling, omul, herring, lobster fish, red-eye, and perch. It starts to freeze in September but completely covered by ice in late November while it starts to melt in May but sometimes it keeps its ice until the beginning of June. Khovsgol lake is close by its age to Baikal lake regarding ancient time tectonic movement cracks, and because of its tectonical depths, the coastline is heavily stretched and intercepted and is covered with a peninsula, a steep bed with rocks and cliffs.
It is surrounded by high mountains and is surrounded by Khoridol Saridag mountain range and Bayayan mountain range at 3000-3200 meters to the southwest. Very steep shores to the sides but a little bit slope in left sides. The western part of Lake Hovsgol is the Darkhad Depression basin. The Darkhad Depression is one of the coldest places in Mongolia. There are four islands in Lake Khuvsgul: Modon Khui, Khadan Khui, Dalai Khui and Baga Khui. The largest of these is the “Dalain Khui”, which is about 126 meters high above water surface, 3 kilometers long, 2 kilometers wide, 5.8 square kilometers wide and tottally covered with woods. The “Khadan Khui” Island has a high-altitude cliffs and rocks, so many birds congregate. “Modon Khui” has a very beautiful environment. Water transparency is 24.5 m. There are bronze age cave paintings alongside the shore.
Lake Khovsgol is extremely deep, and warms up to 50 meters because summer is short. The surface water temperature does not exceed above 18 ° C, therefore it is the coldest lake in our country. The lake is oval shaped tectonically extending along the longitudinal, 133.4 km long from north to south, 39.5 km from west to east and 2612 km. This lake has a volume of 380 km3 and it is second in Asia and 14th largest in the world. Khovsgol lake contains 93.6 % of total surface fresh water of Mongolia and 1% of world fresh water. 46 rivers and streams in total flow into Khovsgol lake but only one river Eg roots from this lake. Many turbid streams are poured into this lake, but the water is very transparent. Translucent limit is 22.9m in the center of the lake and 14.3m along the shores and river banks.